Question 1 options:
a) amygdala and hippocampus
b) basal ganglia and cingulate cortex.
c) thalamus and hypothalamus.
d) pons, cerebellum, and medulla oblongata.
Question 2 (1 point)
According to the James-Lange theory of emotion, we feel fear when
Question 2 options:
a) we have learned that fear responses lead to rewards.
b) we see others showing fear.
c) we judge that a threat is present.
d) we feel the fight-or-flight response is underway.
Question 3 (1 point)
Which is NOT an important principle of the study devoted to the biological bases of behavior (behavioral neuroscience, psychobiology, physiological psychology):
Question 3 options:
a) the nervous system controls and responds to body functions and directs behavior
b) nervous system structure and function are determined by both genes and environment throughout life
c) every behavior can be explained solely by reference to the brain
d) the brain is the foundation of the mind, making learning, memory, language, and other processes possible
Question 4 (1 point)
Which of the following is NOT true about amnesia?
Question 4 options:
a) It is always caused by brain damage.
b) It may involve an inability to form new memories.
c) It may involve an inability to retrieve old memories.
d) Amnesic patients typically recover within a few days.
Question 5 (1 point)
Stages of sleep are easily distinguished by
Question 5 options:
a) changes in respiration
b) the quality and quantity of dreams
c) chcanges in the electrical activity of the brain
d) changes in consciousness
Question 6 (1 point)
The smallest meaningful unit of speech is the
Question 6 options:
Question 7 (1 point)
Study of the function of the living human brain is difficult for all the following reasons, EXCEPT
Question 7 options:
a) it is unethical to induce brain damage in humans for the purpose of research
b) brain damage is rarely the same from case to case
c) a damaged brain gives us little information about brain structure and function in the living brain
d) it is difficult to obtain the brain of a person who has suffered brain damage
Question 8 (1 point)
Tameness, hyperorality, and damage to the amygdala are common features of
Question 8 options:
a) Klüver-Bucy syndrome
b) fight-or-flight syndrome
c) fetal alcohol syndrome
d) REM sleep
Question 9 (1 point)
Receptors for the sense of touch include
Question 9 options:
a) hair cells
b) bipolar neurons
c) stretch receptors
d) Meissner corpuscles
Question 10 (1 point)
The increasing permanence of a memory is referred to as
Question 10 options:
d) law of mass action
Question 11 (1 point)
What is considered an analogue of schizophrenia?
Question 11 options:
a) bipolar depression
b) amphetamine psychosis
c) Alzheimer’s disease
d) Drug addiction
Question 12 (1 point)
Oxytocin is associated with which of the following emotions?
Question 12 options:
a) fear and anxiety
b) love and trust
d) decorticate rage
Question 13 (1 point)
Research has shown that the capacity of some human couples to pair bond may reflect the activity of
Question 13 options:
a) oxytocin and dopamine
b) glutamate and glycine
c) dopamine and vasopression
d) vasopressin and oxytocin
Question 14 (1 point)
For humans, the diploid number of chromosomes is ____ and the haploid number is _____.
Question 14 options:
a) 46; 23
b) 23; 23
c) 92; 46
d) 46; 92
Question 15 (1 point)
Which of the following effects would you attribute to frontal lobe damage?
Question 15 options:
a) Inability to comprehend speech
b) Blindness in half the visual field
c) Poorly regulated emotions
d) Inability to remember tunes
Question 16 (1 point)
Activation of the ________ elicits various behavioral, autonomic, and hormonal emotional responses.
Question 16 options:
a) nucleus accumbens
b) central nucleus of the amygdala
c) orbitofrontal cortex
d) medial geniculate nucleus
Question 17 (1 point)
An inability to form new permanent (long-term) memories is called
Question 17 options:
a) anterograde amnesia
b) retrograde amnesia
c) transient global amnesia
d) tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon
Question 18 (1 point)
Stress hormones of the adrenal glands are
Question 18 options:
a) corticotropin-releasing hormone and ACTH
b) acetylcholine and serotonin
c) androgens and estrogens
d) epinephrine/norepinephrine and cortisol
Question 19 (1 point)
Which of the following patterns would you diagnose as Broca’s aphasia?
Question 19 options:
a) Impaired speech production in patients who are aware of the difficulty
b) Impaired speech comprehension in patients who are unaware of the difficulty
c) Inability to remember the names of things
d) Ability to speak more than one language
Question 20 (1 point)
Which of the following is most likely to be the major neuronal process underlying consolidation?
Question 20 options:
a) lateral inhibition
b) receptor adaptation
c) long-term potentiation
Question 21 (1 point)
Based on the study of patient H.M., it has been concluded that
Question 21 options:
a) short-term memories are stored within the hippocampus
b) the hippocampus is required for retrieval of long-term memories
c) long-term memories are stored within the hippocampus
d) the hippocampus converts short-term memories into long-term memories
Question 22 (1 point)
Which of the following is true of learning?
Question 22 options:
a) Learning and memory are synonymous.
b) Long-term memories are related to the electrical activity of the brain
c) Learning involves the modification of the nervous system by experience.
d) Learning is possible in the absence of memory.
Question 23 (1 point)
Verbal behavior is said to be a lateralized function of the left hemisphere in that
Question 23 options:
a) most language problems are noted after damage to the right rather than to the left hemisphere
b) most language problems are noted after damage to the left rather than to the right hemisphere
c) right-handed persons are more likely to have their language center located within the right hemisphere
d) electrical stimulation of the left hemisphere has a smaller effect on language than does similar stimulation of the right hemisphere
Question 24 (1 point)
The area of receptive surface on or in the body where stimulation may excite a sensory neuron is called a
Question 24 options:
a) receptive field
d) area centralis
Question 25 (1 point)
Based on his observation of brain damage and behavioral difficulties in a stroke victim, Paul Broca concluded that:
Question 25 options:
a) the control of speech is a function of the left hemisphere
b) the right hemisphere controls movements on the right side of the body
c) damage to the right hemisphere impairs speech
d) different regions of the brain control heart rate and breathing,purposeful movements, and sensory function
Question 26 (1 point)
Damage to the basal ganglia would be expected to produce difficulties in
Question 26 options:
a) speech perception
b) emotional experience
c) understanding social rules
d) motor movements
Question 27 (1 point)
The idea that our emotions result from bodily changes such as adrenaline secretion is called the
Question 27 options:
a) Cannon-Bard theory of emotion
b) saltatory conduction of thought
c) Klüver-Bucy theory of emotion
d) James-Lange theory of emotion
Question 28 (1 point)
Which of the following supports the notion that heredity contributes to differences in body weight?
Question 28 options:
a) Pima Indians in the U.S. and Mexico share the same genes, but only those persons who live in a particular environment develop obesity.
b) Several forms of human obesity involve a deficit in ghrelin production, which can be treated by ghrelin injection.
c) Twin studies indicate that genes account for 25 percent of the variability in body fat accumulated when people are fed a high-fat diet.
d) Twin studies indicate that genes account for little of the variability in body fat accumulated when people are fed a high-fat diet.
Question 29 (1 point)
Perseveration in decision-making reflects injury to
Question 29 options:
a) vestibular hair cells
b) long-term potentiation
c) prefrontal cortex
d) bipolar depression
Question 30 (1 point)
Saying that schizophrenia has a genetic basis means that
Question 30 options:
a) there is a gene that is responsible for schizophrenia
b) schizophrenic parents will have schizophrenic children
c) a twin of a schizophrenic person has a greater than average chance of developing schizophrenia
d) some races are more schizophrenic than others
Question 31 (1 point)
Research on the genetics of drug dependence indicates that
Question 31 options:
a) alcoholism and smoking are independent diseases
b) alcoholism and smoking share common genetic factors
c) smokers are high in status and achievement, but low in sensation seeking
d) alcoholics are high in status and achievement, but low in sensation seeking
Question 32 (1 point)
Which of the following is strong evidence for a genetic contribution to a behavior?
Question 32 options:
a) Dizygotic twins haved a higher concordance rate than do monozygotic twins.
b) Monozygotic twins have a higher concordance rate than do dizygotic twins.
c) Heterozygotic twins have a lower concordance rate than do monozygotic twins.
d) Adopted children resemble their adopted families wth regard to a trait.
Question 33 (1 point)
Synaptic plasticity (i.e., changes in the structure or biochemistry of synapses that alters postsynaptic receptors) has been demonstrated most frequently in which psychological phenomena:
Question 33 options:
Question 34 (1 point)
Experience stimulates the production of ____________ to produce brain plasticity in the form of enduring structural changes
Question 34 options:
c) neurotrophic factors
Question 35 (1 point)
The patient known as H.M. demonstrated which important aspects of amnesia?
Question 35 options:
a) Plasticity in recovering from significant brain damage; importance of past experience in forming memories; reliance of emotional regulation on frontal cortex
b) Involvment of the hippocampus in memory; ability of one kind of learning, such as mirror drawing, to survive amnesia affecting other kinds of learning.
c) Importance of youth in surviving major brain damage; dependence of brain plasticity on the Y chromosome.
d) Confirmation of the amygdala as a “fear center” and of prefrontal cortex as a inhibitor of the amygdala.
Question 36 (1 point)
The role of neural reorganization in recovery of function after brain damage can be described as
Question 36 options:
a) controversial, but it is assumed to play some role
b) recently well-understood
c) well-understood only in lower mammals
Question 37 (1 point)
The development of new neurons in adult brains can be described by the following EXCEPT:
Question 37 options:
a) adult brains are capable of major adaptation
b) adult brains are not as plastic as developing brains
c) adult brains are set in their own ways
d) new neurons created in adult brains can be integrated into existing neural circuits
Question 38 (1 point)
The part of the brain that is associated with producing all of the emotions is the
Question 38 options:
c) frontal cortex
d) corpus callosum
Question 39 (1 point)
Emotions are distinguished most clearly by
Question 39 options:
a) hormone secretions
c) how far a species has evolved
d) electrical activity of the left hemisphere
Question 40 (1 point)
The number of alternations of dark and light within a small area of the retina is called
Question 40 options:
a) spatial frequency
b) the fovea
c) visual acuity
d) a receptive field
Question 41 (20 points)
The brain is made up of approximately 100 billion nerve cells, or neurons, each with many thousands of interconnections. There is communication both within these neurons and from one neuron to the next.
First, describe these different forms of communication that explain how information is transmitted both (a) within the neuron and (b) between neurons. Then, discuss reasons and give examples why neuron communication is important to biopsychology.
Question 41 options:
Question 42 (20 points)
One of the most exciting findings in biopsychology is that the developing brain has the capacity for a great deal of plasticity. It is known that the brains of preadolescent individuals are more plastic than those of adults. That is, they can recover from brain injury much more rapidly and completely than adults.
First, describe what is meant by plasticity and the different kinds of plasticity that are possible. Then, discuss what factors might account for the differences of more rapid recovery from brain injury in preadolescents compared to adults
Question 42 options:
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Question 43 (20 points)
Identify three contributors to the development of biopsychology. Describe the ideas and/or research that the person is famous for. Discuss the reasons that their contributions are important to the field of contemporary biopsychology.