Im looking for someone who is great in Human anatomy to take a quiz for me online. its only 10 questions and I will supply all the notes. I have attached the notes for your use and if you decide to take the quiz I will provide the Log In information. Hi!

If you can tell someone how to get from your house to the local shopping center, then you can tell me how blood is carried from the heart to your left foot. Basically, studying the sequence of blood vessels is just like learning about nearby roads. The difference is that you may be more familiar with driving directions around your house, than you are with your own blood vessels!

So, just like you practice giving driving directions, practice giving blood flow directions. Start with one vessel and trace the blood flow, naming each vessel in sequence, until you get to your destination. Start at different places and move away from the heart, for arteries and move towards the heart, for veins.

Remember, correct vessel names MUST be complete and include all three parts: vessel side (right or left); vessel name (correctly spelled); and, vessel type (artery, vein, or portal vein)

BSC 1083 chapter objectives
The Cardiovascular System:Vessels and Circulation

Textbook chapter: 14.
1. Name/identify the three layers/walls of arteries and veins, identifying the tissues composing each. Include valves.
2. Distinguish the structural and functional differences between arteries and arterioles.
3. Describe the structure and function of a vein/venule.
4. Describe the structure of capillaries and their functions.
5. Identify important veins and arteries, relating them to the organ/region serviced. (*list appended)

A. Arteries:

1. Aorta – ascending aorta and arch of aorta
2. Coronary artery (into cardiac muscle tissue forming heart)

3. Brachiocephalic Artery/Trunk
4. Left Common Carotid Artery
5. Left Subclavian Artery

(NOTE: 3-4 are direct branches off the aortic arch.)

6. Right Common Carotid Artery
7. Right Subclavian Artery

(NOTE: 6-7 branch off the Brachiocephalic Trunk.)

8. L/R Axillary Arteries – continuous with subclavians
9. L/R Brachial – continuous with axillaries
10. L/R Radial
11. L/R Ulnar

(NOTE: 10-11 branch off the Brachials.)

12. Thoracic Aorta
13. Abdominal Aorta
14. Left Gastric – supplies the stomach
15. Splenic – supplies the spleen
16. Hepatic Artery – supplies the liver
17. L/R Renal – supply the kidneys
18 . Inferior Mesenteric – supplies the intestine
19. L/R Common Iliac – branch off and directly
continuous with the Aorta
20. L/R Femoral – continuous with the External Iliac
21. L/R Popliteal – behind the knee
22. L/R Posterior Tibia
23. L/R Dorsalis Pedis

B. Arterial Supply to the Head and Brain:

1. L/R Common Carotid

C. Veins:

1. Superior Vena Cava
2. Inferior Vena Cava
3. L/R Brachiocephalic – join to form the Superior Vena Cava
4. L/R Subclavian – lead into the Brachiocephalics
5. L/R Jugular (from the head and drain into the brachiocephalics)

6 . L/R Axillary – drain into subclavians
7. L/R Brachial – drain into the axillaries
8 L/R Ulnar
9 L/R Radial

10. L/R Median Cubital – superficial, anterior to elbow
– where they usually draw venous blood samples

11. Hepatic Portal System – collects blood from the
spleen, stomach, and intestines, carrying
it to the liver for processing
12. Hepatic – drains the liver, carrying blood to the
Inferior Vena Cava
13. L/R Renal – drain the kidneys into the inferior vena cava

14. L/R Common Iliac – meet to form and drain into
the IVC
15. L/R Femoral – drain into the external iliacs
– posterior to the femur
16. L/R Great Saphenous – drains into the femorals
– superficial and medial to the femorals
-important for use as coronary artery bypass
17. L/R Popliteal – drain into the femorals
18. L/R Posterior Tibial

The Cardiovascular System: Vessels and Circulation

Textbook chapter: 14.

Resources:

Use these web resources to supplement your studies of lecture notes and objectives.

Textbook (sample quizzes, labeling)-select a chapter number in pull down menu.

More online tutorials

Lecture Notes

I. Vessels
The vessels of our circulatory system contain the blood in a closed system. Red blood cells do not leave vessel, platelets seal tears in vessels and white blood cells can migrate through vessel walls. Other water and dissolved substances leave primarily at capillaries, only.

General sequence of vessels is: artery, arteriole, capillary, venule and vein. Except for capillary, vessels have two or three layers in their walls.

A. General structure of arteries and veins-most complex vessels1. Lumen

2. Tunica interna or intima (innermost)
simple squamous epithelial
maintains smooth surface to promote flow
(in capillaries provides an easy exchange site)

3. Tunica media (middle layer)
elastic fibers and smooth muscle
these tissues promote vasodilation and vasocontstriction, respectively

4. Tunica externa (adventitia)
mostly collagen fibers
protects blood supply from loss

B. Comparison of arteries and veins
Arteries Veins
Lumen small, open large, collapsed

Tunica media thick thin

Tunica externa thin thick

Valves no yes

Compare and contrast the structure of arteries and veins.

C. Arteries1. Three layered walls

2. Larger arteries, near heart, have lots of elastic in tunica media to promote rebound keeping blood pressure continuous despite cyclical variation in blood pressure

3. Arteries function to distribute blood via strong pressure developed by myocardial contractions.

D. Arterioles1. Two layered walls (t. externa absent)

2. Arterioles are normally partly vasoconstricted. More ANS stimulation causes greater vasoconstriction. Less stimulation allows elastic rebound and vasodilation

3. Arterioles function to control blood flow by vasodilation & vasoconstriction

E. Capillaries1. One-cell thick, walled vessels (simple squamous epithelium cell) with many spaces between cells (loose junctions).

Diameter not much larger than red blood cells.

2. Usually a capillary next to nearly every cell in body (except epidermis, cornea and cartilage)

3. Primary function is to promote the exchange of water, transported materials & gases to cells or away from cells

F. Venules (small veins) and Veins1. Weak blood flow due to skeletal muscular and respiratory pumping

2. Tend to be larger than arteries so most blood (~60%) is stored in veins and venules

3. Function to drain areas serviced by capillaries

Each organ typically has an artery entering , many arterioles, very abundant capillaries, many venules and one vein exiting.

Helpful web link

Another helpful web link

II The Systemic Circulation:

NOTE: PAY SPECIAL ATTENTION TO “VESSEL TYPE” (That is, whether the vessel is an artery or vein) AND “VESSEL SIDE” (That is, right or left).
A correct answer would include the “VESSELSIDE VESSELNAME VESSELTYPE”…for instance, “Right Jugular Vein”

NOTE: You should be able to recognize all the assigned vessels AND the vessels that either supply or drain from those vessels.

A. Arteries:

1. Aorta – ascending aorta
aortic arch
descending aorta

2. Brachiocephalic Artery/Trunk
3. Left Common Carotid Artery
4. Left Subclavian Artery

(NOTE: 2-4 are direct branches off the aortic arch.)

5. Right Common Carotid Artery
6. Right Subclavian Artery

(NOTE: 5 & 6 branch off the Brachiocephalic Trunk.)

7. L/R Axillary Arteries – continuous with subclavians
8. L/R Brachial – continuous with axillaries
9. L/R Radial
10. L/R Ulnar
11. L/R Palmar Arches

(NOTE: 9 & 10 branch off the Brachials.)

12. Thoracic Aorta

(NOTE: 12 becomes 13 once it passes through the diaphragm

13. Abdominal Aorta
14. Left Gastric – supplies the stomach
15. Splenic – supplies the spleen
16. Hepatic Artery – supplies the liver
17. L/R Renal – supply the kidneys
18 . Inferior Mesenteric – supplies the intestine
19. L/R Common Iliac – branch off and directly
continuous with the Aorta
20. L/R Femoral – continuous with the External Iliac
21. L/R Popliteal – behind the knee
22. L/R Posterior Tibia
23. L/R Dorsalis Pedis

B. Arterial Supply to the Head and Brain:

1. L/R Common Carotid

C. Veins:

1. Superior Vena Cava
2. Inferior Vena Cava
3. L/R Brachiocephalic – join to form the S. Vena Cava
4. L/R Subclavian – lead into the Brachiocephalics
5. L/R Internal Jugular
6. L/R Vertebral

7 . L/R Axillary – drain into subclavians
8. L/R Brachial – drain into the axillaries
9 1. L/R Ulnar
10 L/R Radial

11. L/R Median Cubital – superficial, anterior to elbow
– where they usually draw venous blood samples

12. L/R Palmar Venous Arches
13. Hepatic Portal System – collects blood from the
spleen, stomach, and intestines, carrying
it to the liver for processing NOTE: THIS IS ONLY VEIN SUPPLYING BLOOD TO AN ORGAN (liver)
14. Hepatic – drains the liver, carrying blood to the
Inferior Vena Cava
15. L/R Renal – drain the kidneys into the IVC
16 . L/R Common Iliac – meet to form and drain into
the IVC

17 . L/R Femoral – drain into the external iliacs
– posterior to the femur
18 . L/R Great Saphenous – drains into the femorals
– superficial and medial to the femorals
-important for use as coronary artery bypass
19 . L/R Popliteal – drain into the femorals

20. L/R Posterior Tibial
21. L/R Dorsal Venous Arch – drain into the Great
Saphenous

Helpful web link

BSC 1083 chapter objectives

The Lymphatic System

Textbook chapter: 15.

1. Describe the general functions of the Lymphatic system.

2. Name the three types of lymphatic vessels. For each:
a) provide its function
b) distribution
c) histology/structure – if discussed

3. Name the two lymphatic ducts. For each:
a) name the regions of the body it drains
b) name the blood vessel it drains into

4. Describe the role of lymphatic organs (nodes, spleen and thymus)

Lecture Notes

I Main functions:

1) Collect fluids/lymph and return it to the venous blood, maintaining
blood volume.
2) Immunosurveillance
3) absorption of dietary fats in intestine

II. Lymphatic flow:

The following vessels are involved in lymph production, flow and return to the veins.

A. Lymph Capillaries:

– endothelium/simple squamous epithelium
– They are found throughout most tissues and among
blood capillaries.

B. Lymphatic Vessels:

– They receive lymph from the capillaries.Lymph produced by capillaries eventually carried to and through
lymph nodes by these vessels.
– Have the same three tunics as veins, but have thinner walls.
– Have more valves.

C. Lymphatic Ducts:

– They are larger than the collecting vessels.
– The vessels drain into the trunks.
– They form as the largest vessels meet.
– They drain large regions of the body.

They drain/return lymph into the venous supply where the subclavians
and internal jugulars meet.

1) Right Lymphatic Duct:

Drains lymph only from the right arm, right side of head,
and right thorax which drains into the right subclavian Vein.

2) Thoracic Duct/Left Duct:

Drains the upper left side and entire lower part of body which drains into the left subclavian Vein.

II. Primary Lymphoid Organs:
All produce lymphocytes and also contain macrophages (aggressive monocytes). These cells provide the functions of these organs.

A. Diffuse lymphatic tissues (nodules without connective tissue capsule)
Examples include:Tonsils and adenoids of oral cavity; and, Peyer’s Patches in intestine

B Lymph Nodes:
Surrounded by capsule, Nodules in cortex, lymph vessels in medulla. Located along lymph vessels.
They contain many B cells and some T cells (lymphocytes, remember).
B (plasma cells) produce antibodies which neutralize, immobolize or agglutinate microbes.
T cells attack microbes and lyse their membranes (cytolysis)

C.. Spleen: largest lymphoid organ.

Anatomically like a large lymph node but resist disease (see above functions of cells in these organs) from pathogens from blood, not lymph.
On the left side of the abdominal cavity.

Functions: 1) Site of lymphocyte proliferation.
2) Immunosurveillance (lymphocytes monitoring for microbes)
3) Removes old erythrocytes, platelets, debris,
pathogens, toxins from blood.
4) Stores iron.
5) Stores platelets.
6) Is the site of rbc production in the fetus.

D. Red bone marrow
Production of all blood cells, including lymphocytes

III Secondary lymphatic organs
A. Thymus:

This is the only lymphoid organ that does not directly resist disease or pathogens.

– Anterior and superior to the heart.
– Produces thymosin which makes T cells immunocompetent.(mature and active)

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