BIOCHEMISTRY

Competency 208.5.4: Enzymology and Catalytic Mechanism – The graduate constructs models of enzymes, demonstrates how enzymes act as a catalyst in a reaction and factors that influence this reaction, and solves enzyme and catalysis problems.

Competency 208.5.5: Carbohydrate Metabolism, Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) – The graduate constructs models of carbohydrates and demonstrates metabolism of carbohydrates; demonstrates how adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is essential to energy transfer in the cell and how irregularities in ATP synthesis in the cell can cause cytopathologies.

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Task 4: Metabolism

Introduction:

More and more researchers are discovering that many diseases are caused by biochemical deficiencies or defects. That is, instead of indicating that a disease is caused by a nutritional deficiency, researchers recognize that an underlying cause may be a single molecular structure within a cell that fails to turn a cellular process on or off. This is particularly true regarding metabolism. For this task, you will consider the biochemical implications in a metabolic disorder involving a normal component of food—fructose.

You should compile your work for this task in a single document (e.g., Microsoft Word, Google Document) that includes diagrams, text explanations, and references. If a requirement asks for an explanation, you should provide a written response in a narrative style (i.e., complete sentences rather than bullet points).

Note: Multimedia presentations (e.g., PowerPoint, Keynote) will not be accepted due to potential originality concerns.

Note: Please save submission documents as *.doc, *.docx, *.rtf, or *.pdf files. If you are using Google Documents, you must save the file in *.pdf format and upload the *.pdf file.

Requirements:

Demonstrate your understanding of the biochemical basis of hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) by doing the following:
Describe two important features that make all enzymes catalysts.
.

Explain the reactions catalyzed by enzymes in the first two steps of fructose metabolism in the liver, including each of the following:
the substrates acted on
the enzyme catalysts
the products generated
Discuss how a deficiency in aldolase B is responsible for HFI by doing the following:
Explain how the amount of the substrate of aldolase B is impacted by the deficiency.
Explain the role of the substrate in producing one condition of HFI (e.g., hypoglycemia, liver failure).

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