Answers should be based on the course text and lecture onlyInternet sources are not permitted. Evidence of the use of Internet sources will result in a change of academic dishonesty.


Students will complete all FOUR questions. Each answer should be aproximately 250 words in length.


1. Discuss two of the problems natural law theory attempts to solve. Do you think it is successful in doing so?


2. Shafer-Landau argues that “contradictions are a fatal flaw in any theory” and proceeds to rework virtue ethics so as to account for the contradictions to which it may give rise. Do you think contradiction is a fatal flaw to moral theory? And is there a way of understanding virtue ethics particularly that calls that assumption into question? 


3. Explain Kant’s principle of humanity. Do you think the current world is more Kantian or Utilitarian? Be sure to give reasons in support of your answer. 


4. Describe the atheist argument against the idea that there are objective moral judgements. 



The only source you need to complete the test is the course textbook on which they are based. No other sources are required.


 You must demonstrate that you understand the ideas and discuss them in your own words. This is about thinking about the materials and what they mean rather than merely repeating them.


No Internet sources are permitted. Evidence of the use of such sources will result in a grade zero and a charge of academic dishonesty.



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Write an essay on ONEof the three topics specified below, according to the following instructions.


Essay Topics

(1) Imagine that the economic well-being of Canada depends on the ability of Canadian corporations to sell industrial products to a smallnumber of developing   countries. In all of these countries it is virtually impossible to get business unless you bribe the right people within the local government. Even though officially illegal, bribing is a largely accepted cultural phenomenon.You have been appointed a special advisor to Canada’s International Trade Minister. You know that without the practice of bribing, Canadian corporations will lose business to competition. Tens of thousands of Canadian jobs are at stake. Will you advise the Minister to turn a blind eye on the deeply rooted practice of brining? Why yes or why not?


(2) Until a few generations ago, there was a well-known custom in many communities in some developing countries, communities whose economy was based almost entirely on self-sufficient agriculture. At the age of 35 or so, a married couple which in most of the cases already had about 5-8 children ages 8  to 18, would decide to have an old age child. The reason to give birth to this child was to ensure that he or she will take care of the parents when they reach old age and need assistance. The community did not offer social services or medical  insurance and without an old age child, the parents would not be able to bear old age with dignity. Some old age children would never marry; his or her main preoccupation was to take care of their aging parents. Nevertheless, no one was complaining. This was an ancient, deeply rooted custom. Was the old age child custom morally justifiable? Why yes or why not?


(3) Imagine that several years from now you are working as a HR manager in Toronto Con, a large firm that employs about 250 employees. Among your responsibilities is firing people who breach the company’s code of conduct. Jim Challenge, who works on the “Toy-Safe” project, was late three times last month and as a result he is an obvious candidate to let go. It is under your discretion, however, to give him another chance, if you believe that at least on one occasion the lateness was beyond his control. Here are some additional facts. (1) Jim hasnot presented to you any kind of reasonable justification for any of his late appearances. (2) Jim’s work in the next couple of months is essential for the successful completion of the Toy-Safe project, which is the company’s high priority. 3) Jim is a brother of your spouse’s best friend, and your spouse expects you to give him another chance. Will you let Jim stay on the job? Why yes or why  not? 



The recommended length is 600 – 750 words. If you need more space, you may write up to 900 words, but no more.


The essay should be written in the following way:

    1. In the first paragraph, you need to do two things. State your thesis, and the arguments that justify your answer. 
    2. In other words, the first paragraph will be the  outline of your essay. For example, if you choose topic 1, your thesis will be either “I will advise the Minister to turn a blind eye” or “I will advise the Minister not to turn a blind eye on bribing.”
    4. In the following paragraphs, carry on the plan from the first paragraph.
    5. You need to use at least two arguments to justify your thesis. 
    6. At least one of the arguments must be based on one of the moral theories that we will have learned by the time you write the essay.
    8. If you present specific arguments that you found on the Internet or elsewhere, you must clearly identify the source.
    1. Each paragraph (except for the first) should talk about one argument (issue) only.  Following this rule is likely to make a big difference.
    3. Use APA Writing Style.

Use of external sources: If you are using external sources (websites, books, articles, etc.), you need to be aware of the rules regarding academic honesty/plagiarism.


Avoiding Plagiarism!!!

Plagiarism is an act of academic dishonesty. Typical acts of plagiarism include presenting ideas of someone else as if they were your own. Never copy and paste text from websites into your essay! You must always reference any text that you are using. You will find additional information in the Avoiding Plagiarism: A Quick Reference Guide below. Please read it carefully before writing the essay. Committing an act of plagiarism may result in a mark of 0 as well as an official charge of academic misconduct. This is a serious offense!


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