1) People can use facial expressions, eye contact, gestures with their hands, posture and proximity to the other person.
2) People could be comforted non-verbally by a care practitioner smiling at them, making eye contact (in some cultures), by the care practitioner having their arms loose and leaning slightly towards them and making a judgement about how close to sit to the person.
3)Care practitioners use music, art and craft and drama-based activities to allow service users to express themselves and as a context for interaction and social mixing. This may be particularly useful for service users with mental health problems, learning difficulties or language difficulties.
4) In European cultures eye contact can be a way of showing interest in what someone is saying. However, in other cultures eye contact may be a sign of disrespect. Similarly, physical closeness may be interpreted differently by people of different cultures. People of Mediterranean countries, the Middle East and South America tend to touch more and need less personal space. People from Western European and Scandinavian countries are more reserved and prefer only formal touching and plenty of personal space.