A hormone that controls a person’s appetite might bind to ____________ proteins on

membranes in the brain.

What is the typical site of origin of leptin hormone?

In a normal person, what is the effect of elevated leptin levels in the bloodstream? 11.1 Life’s Responsiveness

If a bog plant designed to catch insects proves unable to do so, the result will be starvation

for ____________.

Why does a living thing need to be responsive?

Based on Figure 11.5 in your text, what is the role of homeostatic mechanisms? When an environmental change shifts an organism’s internal chemistry toward a new

state, the organism’s response is to try to return its chemistry toward the original state.

This tendency on the organism’s part is called ____________. 11.2 Responsiveness at the Transcriptional Level

In the lactose operon of E. coli, what causes the repressor protein to change its shape?

What is the resultant effect of the repressor protein’s shape change on lactose gene


When there is little or no lactose present in a bacterium’s environment, then the gene for

the lactose transport enzyme is not trans-____________ and trans-____________.

When there is little or no lactose present in a bacterium’s environment, then the gene for

the ____________ breakdown enzyme is not transcribed and translated.

When there is little or no lactose present in a bacterium’s environment, then the

____________ sequence in the DNA is bound by a repressor protein.

When there is little or no lactose present in a bacterium’s environment, then the

____________ operon is shut down.

When the lactose operon is functioning, the bacterium can ____________ and break down

lactose because ____________ and degradation genes are being transcribed. 11.3 Responsiveness at the Cellular Level

After a fly trips the sensory hair on the modified leaf of a Venus flytrap, what is the very

next step in the closing process?

According to Figure 11.10, list the complete sequence of chemical events in the closure of

a Venus flytrap. In the Venus flytrap, the enzyme expansin helps to close the trap by loosening the

____________ in the plant’s cell walls.

Once ____________ has weakened the cellulose in the walls of the leaf trap cells,

____________ rushes into the cells, expanding them and closing the trap. 11.5 Responsiveness at the Organ System Level

The suprachiasmatic nuclei in the brain help the human nervous system to respond to

daily alterations in ____________ and ____________. Page 1 of 4 BIOL 101 The ____________ ____________ enable the nervous system to respond to light/dark

alterations through their stimulation of the pineal ____________ in the center of your


The human nervous system responds to daily alterations in light and darkness by

influencing melatonin levels in the ____________.

The human nervous system responds to daily alterations in light and darkness by

controlling how much melatonin reaches the ____________ nuclei.

The human nervous system responds to daily alterations in light and darkness by

modulating the amount of ____________ secretion of the hypothalamus.

The human nervous system responds to daily alterations in light and darkness by

influencing ____________ levels secreted by the thyroid gland.

The human nervous system responds to daily alterations in light and darkness by changing

the basal ____________ rate of your cells.

One effect of melatonin on the suprachiasmatic nuclei is that it corrects the ____________

of their day/night signaling system.

What is the general effect of decreasing melatonin levels in the body?

List 5 different reasons some individuals take a melatonin supplement. 12 Informational Continuity in Organisms

Biological information is preserved within the base sequence of what molecule? 12.1 Reproduction: Asexual and Sexual

Asexual Reproduction

Give 3 examples of asexual reproduction methods in plants. What method of asexual reproduction does the Kalanchoe plant utilize?

What method of asexual reproduction does the Iris plant utilize? Sexual Reproduction

One major advantage of sexual reproduction over asexual reproduction is that in sexual

reproduction, the population has increased ____________ variability.

List 4 disadvantages of sexual reproduction. An “allele” is a specific alternate form of a ____________. Page 2 of 4 BIOL 101 Two slightly different versions of genes that lie at the exact same location on two separate

homologous chromosomes are called ____________.

The phrase “two homologous sets of genes” can mean either two similar collections of

genes from two separate ____________, or two similar collections of genes arranged on

two complete sets of ____________. 12.2 Preparing Reproductive Cells for Multicellular Organisms

The Challenge of Making a Reproductive Cell

A reproductive cell must differ genetically from other normal body cells in what critical

way (because it will soon fuse with another reproductive cell to form a new individual)? How Can This Ploidy Problem Be Solved?

The specialized process that halves the number of chromosomes during sex cell formation

is named ____________. Meiosis: A Triumph of Genome Reduction and Genetic Variability

List in order 8 successive stages in the process of meiosis. The stage of meiosis in which the total number of chromosomes is reduced to half is

called the reduction division. Which stage brings this about?

For each of 23 pairs of chromosomes, the haploid egg cell will have either a maternal or

paternal chromosome, but it can be different for each pair. This explains how the process

of meiosis contributes to genetic ____________. Differentiation of Reproductive Cells: A Biological Context

In the human life cycle, diploid cells undergo a cell division process called

____________. The resulting haploid cells later fuse during ____________, which

regenerates diploid cells.

Early in your own development there exists a small subset of diploid cells called primary

germ cells. Where do they begin to develop? Where do they migrate to and lodge? What

process will they later go through to become haploid? What will they be called right

before the first cell division in that process?

Haploid secondary spermatocytes go on directly to complete meiosis, forming four

spermatid cells. These will eventually differentiate into sperm cells. The last stage of

meiosis (that generates the spermatids) is called ____________. 12.3 Reproduction in Humans

Oogenesis in Humans

A secondary oocyte that has undergone one meiotic division, a polar body, a fluid-filled

cavity, and a spherical cluster of nutritive cells are all found within a structure called a

mature ____________.

For about half of a woman’s monthly cycle, the hormone ____________ leaves the

pituitary gland and, at the ovary, signals it to bring a more advanced ____________ to

complete maturity. Page 3 of 4 BIOL 101 What hormone, suddenly secreted from the anterior pituitary gland in high levels, causes

the mature follicle to rupture from the ovary surface?

The reproductive system uses the hormones ____________ and (later on) ____________

to “think ahead.” They guide the preparation of the uterus for its role in supporting


The mature egg, once ruptured from its follicle, is swept into the ____________ by

finger-like fringes called ____________.

Normally a fertilized egg ends its journey temporarily by implanting within the wall of

what structure? Spermatogenesis and Fertilization

Sperm cell production occurs within the interior lining of the ____________.

Using Figure 12.21, list in order the sequence of cell types that produce a sperm cell.

Leydig cells, testosterone, LH hormone, and FSH hormone are all involved in the control

of ____________ cell production.

List in order the structures by which a mature sperm cell travels from the epididymis to

the female’s reproductive tract.

Penetration of the egg’ zona pellucida by the sperm cell is a process driven by the activity

of a(n) ____________.

The quintessential (most basic/most important) moment of fertilization of the egg by the

sperm cell occurs when the male and female ____________ fuse together into one

nucleus. 12.4 Reproduction Constrained, Part 1: Control of Birth

Which methods of birth control work by blocking sperm on its journey from the testicle to

the Fallopian tube?

Which methods of birth control work by altering the hormonal chemistry of the female


Which of the following methods by which human conception can be postponed is least

invasive of the complexity of human physiology? the rhythm method, the vaginal ring,

oral contraceptives, tubal ligation, vasectomy

Name a birth control method that is primarily contraceptive and secondarily abortive in its

effects. 12.5 Reproduction Constrained, Part 2: Destruction of Life

Philosophers and Theologians Attempt to Define Personhood

How did the philosopher Plato set about to determine when human life begins? What

terms did he use? When did he consider human life to begin?

Aristotle, the “Father of Biology,” believed that a human being became a person once he

or she exhibited what characteristic? Biologists Work to Define the Human Individual

One excellent biological approach to determining when a mother and her conceptus

become separate individuals is the detection of the first measurable ____________

____________ ____________ via electroencephalography.

At about what time or stage of development does male genetic information from the

sperm begins to be translated into protein products? (This is used by some to determine

when a mother and her conceptus become separate individuals.) Destruction of Human Life Takes Various Forms

What chemical combination is commonly used to terminate a pregnancy, killing the little


Briefly describe a common surgical procedure for aborting a little one. Page 4 of 4

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