1.  Virus-mediated transfer of cellular genetic material from one bacterial cell to another by means of virus particles is called:

(A)  Transduction: Transduction is one of the three basic genetic exchange mechanism Bacteria that allows for the movement of genetic material from a donor to a recipient just like conjugation or transformation

(B) transposition

(C) transformation

(D) transfection

2.  One strand of double-stranded DNA is mutated, changing all cytosines to uracils. After one round of replication of the mutated DNA strand, the melting temperature of the resulting DNA will:

(A) be higher N/A

(B) be lower

(C) remain the same

(D) be double

3. The Southern blotting technique is used for:

(A) the detection of RNA fragments on membranes by specific radioactive antibodies

(B) the detection of DNA fragments on membranes by a radioactive DNA probe: Southern blotting method establishes a particular DNA in a mixture by agarosegel electrophoresis. Researchers use this hybridization method to determine the presence of particular nucleotide sequences in the sample DNA.

(C) the detection of proteins on membranesusing a radioactive DNA probe

(D) the detection of DNA fragments onmembranes by specific radioactiveantibodies

4. Superoxide dismutase is an important enzyme for maintenance of red blood cells and is defective in some neurodegenerative diseases. What does this enzyme do?

(A) catalyzes the conversion of O2- to H2O2 and O2: Superoxide dismutase enzyme catalyzes the translation of superoxide to oxygen and hydrogen peroxide.

(B) createssuperoxides by oxidizing heme

(C) converts H2O2 to water and O2

(D) removes H2O2 by oxidizing glutathione and producing water

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