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WEEK 13 Folder: Quiz 10

The Urinary System

Textbook chapter: 25.

1. Describe the general functions of the urinary system.
2. Describe the gross anatomy of the organs of the urinary system, and their functions.
3. Trace the flow of urine through the nephron and larger organs until it is released from the body..
4. Describe the histology and anatomy of a nephron.
5. List the general functions of the nephron. Distinguish between the functions of filtration, reabsorption, and secretion.
6. Name the three layers of the urinary bladder, including the tissues of each, and their functions.

Be able to recognize the following structures.

urine

nephron

collecting ducts

calyces

renal pelvis

ureter

urniary bladder

urethra

urinary mucosa

muscularis

renal artery

afferent arteriole

glomerular capillaries

efferent arteriole

glomerular capsule

PCT

loop of nephron

DCT

The Urinary System

Textbook chapter: 25.

Resources:

Use these web resources to supplement your studies of lecture notes and objectives.

Textbook (sample quizzes, labeling)-select a chapter number in pull down menu.

More online tutorials

Lecture Notes

I Functions of system

1) Maintains normal blood fluid volume and therefore blood pressure
2 ) Helps regulate normal blood hydrogen and bicarbonate ion levels and therefore blood pH.
3) regulates blood calcium, sodium and potassium levels
4) removes urea and ammonia

II. Kidneys: the major excretory organs

A. External Anatomy:

1) renal capsule – adheres directly to the kidney s surface
– dense irregular connective tissue |
– helps prevent infection

2). Renal Hilus; on the medial, concave surface
– leads into the renal sinus
– the ureters, blood vessels, lymphatics, and nerves enter or exit here

B. Internal Anatomy:

1. renal cortex – the outer region
a) contains the nephron ( glomerular corpuscle, proximal convoluted tubule, loop, distal convoluted ducts, collecting duct) which are the functional units of a kidney)

2. Renal medulla (inner region)
pyramids – cone-shaped tissue masses of the medulla containing ducts
calyces-open tubes
renal pelvis-open area

3. Blood flow
Blood originates at renal Artery, distributed throughout the kidney via a variety of arteries into the cortex where blood flows into the “afferent:” arterioles that regulate flow into the glomerular capillaries (where water and smaller substances are filtered into the glomerular capsule.). Non-filtered blood exits glomerular capillaries into “efferent” arteriole which regulates flow into the “vasa recta” capillaries. From there blood is drained via a variety of veins into the renal vein.

C. Microscopic Anatomy: Nephron

1) Glomerular capsule (Bowman s capsule) receives filtered blood from the very leaky glomerular capillaries (allowing filtration of blood components into nephron).

2) nephron tubules (includes proximal convoluted tubule, loop of nephron, distal convoluted tubule, collecting duct)- filtrate meanders through the tubules allowing tubular reabsorption (movement of substance back into blood supply) and tubular secretion (movement of substance from blood supply into urine).

D. Nephrons are the functional units of kidneys.
– functions blood by filtration (red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets and large proteins are prevented from being filtered into urine so are conserved by the body. Some filtered substances are then secreted (removing materials from blood into urine) or reabsorbed (reclaiming materials from urine into blood).

Glomerular capillaries allow filtration
Vasa recta capillaries allow reabsorption and secretion.

E. Filtrate/Urine flow in kidney
(microscopic:) glomerular capsule to PCT to Loop to DCT to collecting ducts to papillary ducts to (gross:) calyces to renal pelvis

III. Ureters:

– convey urine from the renal pelvis in kidneys to the urinary bladder
– enter the posterior wall of the urinary bladder

Three Layers

1. Mucosa; transitional epithelium
2. Muscularis; smooth muscle
3. Adventitia; outer layer, fibrous connective tissue

IV. Urinary Bladder:

Function – holds urine and ejects urine (micturition)

Filled by the paired ureters and ejects urine through opening of the urethra.

Three Layers:

1. Mucosa; transitional epithelium allows stretch to store urine.folded into rugae for even more stretch.
2. Muscularis; smooth muscle to eject urine.
3. Adventitia; outer layer, fibrous connective tissue or serosa (visceral peritoneum)

V. Urethra:

– drains urine from the urinary bladder and carries it outside of the body

A. Sphincters: two that control the release of urine

1) internal – involuntary
2) external urethral sphincter – voluntary
– surrounds the urethra as it passes through the pelvic floor
– skeletal muscle

Helpful web link

Entire system Urine flow
Blood>Filtrate in glomerular capsule of nephron>nephron tubules>pyramidal ducts>calyces>renal pelvis>ureter>urinary bladder>urethra

A web activity

Another web activity

VI. Urinary hormones
A. ADH
Hypothalamus and Posterior Pituitary – releases ADH
– known as the neurohypophysis
– sits in the sella turcica or sphenoid bone

ADH causes the collecting ducts of the kidneys to reabsorb water more, thereby increasing blood volume and blood pressure. It decreases urine output.

B. Aldosterone
Adrenal cortex-produces Aldosterone
Adosterone promotes Na reabsorption and K secretion at the collecting ducts.So Na is reclaimed and K is lost into the urine

BSC 1083 chapter objectives
The Reproductive System

Textbook chapter: 26.

1. Describe the general function of the reproductive system.
2. Describe the processes of spermatogenesis and oogenesis.
3. Describe the gross anatomy of the ducts, organs, and glands of the male reproductive system. Define their functions.
4. Be able to follow the sperm from where it is produced to the point where it exits the male.
5. Describe the histology of the testes, including both hormone and sperm producing cells.
6. Describe the role of testosterone.
7. Describe the gross anatomy of the ducts, organs, and glands of the female reproductive system. Define their functions.
8. Be able to follow the sperm from where it enters the female to the point where it fertilizes the ova.
9. Describe the histology of the ovaries, including both hormone and ova producing cells.
10. Describe the role of progesterone and estrogen.

Be able to recognize the following structures.

scrotum

vagina

testes

ovary

seminiferous tubules

primare follicle, mature follicle (follicular cells)

prostate

uterine(fallopian) tubes

seminal vesicle

uterus (myometrium, endometirum,. perimetrium)

ductus deferens

secondary oocyte

sperm

mammary glands

penis

mammary ducts

The Reproductive System

Textbook chapter: 26.

Resources:

Use these web resources to supplement your studies of lecture notes and objectives.

Textbook (sample quizzes, labeling)-select a chapter number in pull down menu.

More online tutorials

Lecture Notes

Functions:

1) production of gametes sperm (spematogenesis) and ova (oogenesis)
2) regulation of reproductive structure functions via hormone production
3) fertilization
4) development and nourishment of embryo and fetus
5) birth

I. Male Reproductive structures

A. Testes
– male gonads descended from the pelvic cavity in the scrotum

– composed of seminiferous tubules which are the sites of spermatogenesis
-also contains Interstitial cells which produce testosterone

B. Scrotum
– a sac of skin and underlying fascia suspending and supporting
the testes and epididymis

Scrotum allows temperature regulation to promote Sperm development

C. Epididymis

– in the scrotum wraps around the posterior side of each testis, receives sperm from seminiferous tubules

– the site of sperm maturation, become motile

D . Vas/Ductus Deferens

– two tubes transporting sperm from each epididymis to the ejaculatory duct (in prostate)

– peristaltic waves of smooth muscle move the sperm along

E . Ejaculatory Ducts

– form as the vas deferens and seminal vesicles meet, within the prostate

F. prostatic urethra
Semen enters the prostatic urethra just prior to ejaculation

F. Penile Urethra
-tube carrying ejactulated semen (sperm and fluids from glands) out of body, through penis.

G. Penis

male copulatory organ

H. Glands
1. Seminal Vesicles

– lie along the posterior aspect of the urinary bladder between the urinary bladder and the rectum, superior to the prostate, emptying into the ends of the vas deferens

– produce 60% of semen components, including fructose to provide nutrition to sperm cells.

2. Prostate Gland

immediately inferior to the urinary bladder, surrounds the proximal portion of the urethra

– produces weakly acidic semen, and contains a chemical to activate sperm.

Helpful web link/activity

II. Male reproductive physiology

A. Spermatogenesis

-specific division process to produce male gamete (sperm).
-male variety of meiosis-body cell chromosome count (46) is halved to 23.

B. Hormone regulation
-Testosterone, produced by Interstitial cells, promotes spermatogenesis; and, maintains male secondary sexual structures

III The Female Reproductive Structures

A. Ovaries – female

– the ovaries are near the lateral walls of the pelvic cavity

– sites of oogenesis, production of ova
– gametes develop in follicles, progesterone and estrogen are produced by cells of these follicles

B. Uterine tube or Oviduct ( or Fallopian tubes)
-tube not physically connecting to ovaries

– collects ova, after ovulation, and transfers it towards uterus.
-site of fertilization

C. Uterus
a) Body

– the broad ligaments, double folds of the peritoneum, attach it to either side of the pelvic cavity
layers in uterine body-
a) endometrium – inner layer supplies nutrients to embryo/fetus, stimulated by Estrogen and Progesterone
b) myometrium – smooth muscle ejects fetus during birth, stimulated by Oxytocin
c) perimetrium = visceral peritoneum

– the site of most embryonic and all fetal development

b) Cervix is opening (dilation and effacement during birth)

D. Clitoris
– anterior to the urethral orifice

– cylindrical mass of erectile tissue promoting sexual stimulation

E. Vagina
– a muscular tube extending from the cervix of the uterus to its opening

– passagewy for semen and menstrual flow
– female copulatory organ
– birth canal

F. Mammary Glands or Breasts

– lie over the pectoralis major and serratus anterior muscles

1) alveoli (mammary, lactiferous) glands

– milk secreting glands, stimulated by Prolactin.

2) lactiferous ducts and sinuses
– carries milk from glands to the exterior, movement stimulated by Oxytocin

Helpful web link/activity

IV. Female reproductive physiology
A. Oogenesis
-division process that is interrupted so ova does not have half normal body cell chromosome count.
-division proceeds after fertilization by sperm.

result is fertilized ovum (46 chromosomes, half from dad, half from mom).

B. Hormone regulation
Ovarian cycle results from cyclical changes of Estrogen and Progesterone
These hormones promote proliferation and maintenance (respectively) of endometrium, both maintain female second sexual characteristics.

Menstrual (uterine) cycle results in endometrium proliferates in preparation for implantation of fertilized ovum, but is sloughed off if ovum does not implant.

-also involves ovarian cycle where levels of estrogen and progesterone ready endometrium or cause sloughing.

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