The effect of crack cocaine on African American babies of the 1980’s and where are they today?
Assignment Requirements

Use full sentences and paragraphs when responding.

Introduction-Description of Problem (1 1/2 – 2 pages). Introduce the topics interest in research and description, and then a description of the problem (as referenced from other sources). Be sure and indicate why research is important, and how empirical research can contribute to Psychology. Describe the purpose of research and conclude with a clearly stated research thesis statement.

State the hypothesis to be tested, identifying independent and dependent variables AND how they will be measured (operationalized). (1 page)

Significance (1 page). This section provides the rationale and justification for the research. For example: Who cares about the question? Are opinions divided? How important is it to have an answer to this issue? What are the implications for practice/policy of various possible answers?

Sub-topics (5-6 pages). Subtopics’ provides background information about your topic – it summarizes what is known about the subject. Describe Psychology references. This research clarifies your understanding of the problem and offers a context for your proposed research. (Clarify the readers understanding of the problems and provide Psychological situation analysis on for the Research). Remember to write in past tense.

Use at least 10 SCHOLARLY journal articles and books for a research paper, no older than 5-7 years (and referenced correctly using APA style). Be sure and include studies that deal with major concepts/variables that you will include in the research. If you cannot find literature that is related to your topic, make indirect links that are logical and related.

Conclusion/Summary (1-2 pages) – Summarize the key points of your study – what you hope to accomplish and benefits to be gained by this research. Discuss possible limitations in your research, such as response rate, sampling bias, respondent bias, or other administrative problems.

Thesis Statement:
Babies born in the 1980’s who came into contact with crack cocaine via passive smoking or direct use of the drug through parents have experienced adverse effects of the drug.
I. In the 1980’s there was an increase in cocaine use among American minority groups.
A. Cocaine smoking as crack considered an epidemic.
1. Media stories of mothers who used crack cocaine giving birth to ‘crack
2. Parents who use drugs, it is likely children to have drug taking behavior.
B. 1960’s and 1970’s freebase cocaine in powder was on the rise but later crack cocaine became popular.
1. Crack cocaine prevalent among African Americans.
2. Effect of users of crack cocaine among African Americans.
a. Users of crack cocaine admitted to hospitals.
3. Effects on users of crack cocaine-related to overdose among African Americans.
a. Overdose relating to death or trouble with the police.
C. Crack Cocaine also causes health problems among African Americans.
1. Pulmonary complications.
2. Other complications.
II. Children of crack users are taken away by Child Services.
A. African American families face financial burdens because of crack cocaine.
1. Child exposure to crack cocaine.
B. African American families face with social problems, violence, and risky sexual behavior because of crack cocaine.
1. Child exposure to crack cocaine.
C. Recent studies shown African American users find it difficult managing responsibilities while using crack cocaine.
III. Research on the psychological or social effects of cocaine on babies to find out
what happened to them and, therefore, prove or refute the ‘crack babies’ claim made in
A. Babies in the 1980’s users, 30-26 years later.
B. The mortality rate of babies exposed to cocaine in the 1980’s.
IV. Conclusion

Booth, B. M., Stewart, K. E., Curran, G. M., Cheney, A. M., & Borders, T. F. (2014). Beliefs and attitudes regarding drug treatment: Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior in African-American cocaine users. Addictive behaviors, 39(10), 1441-1446.
Diane Publishing Company (1996). Technologies for Understanding and Preventing Substance abuse and Addiction. Pennsylvania: Author.
Finkelman, P., & Williams, Y. (2008). Encyclopedia of African American History: From the Age of Segregation to the Twenty-first Century. Yohuru Williams.“Delaware,” for Encyclopedia of African American History: From the Age of Segregation to the Twenty-first Century (1896–2005)(Oxford, 2008).
Glenn, J.E. (2014). The Birth of the crack baby and the History that Myths Make. Retrieved from
Hamid, A. (1992). The developmental cycle of a drug epidemic: The cocaine smoking epidemic of 1981–1991. Journal of psychoactive drugs, 24(4), 337-348.
Khalsa, M. E., Tashkin, D. P., & Perrochet, B. (1992). Smoked cocaine: patterns of use and pulmonary consequences. Journal of psychoactive drugs, 24(3), 265-272.
Logan, S., Denby, R., & Gibson, P. A. (Eds.). (2013). Mental health care in the African-American community. London: Routledge
Myers, P. L. (2014). 21st Century Research on Drugs and Ethnicity: Studies Supported by the National Institute on Drug Abuse. London: Routledge.
Reinarman, C., & Levine, H. G. (2004). Crack in the rearview mirror: Deconstructing drug war mythology. Social Justice, 182-199.
Sharpe, T. T., Lee, L. M., Nakashima, A. K., Elam-Evans, L. D., & Fleming, P. L. (2004). Crack cocaine use and adherence to antiretroviral treatment among HIV-infected black women. Journal of Community Health, 29(2), 117-127.

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