A// problem tree analysis:
Develop a problem tree to understand the various causes (mainly the non-clinical causes) causing increased childhood blindness in developing and under developed countries.

The main steps are:

1-Identify and list all core problems causing childhood blindness.
2-Identify related problems/constraints.
3-Arrange them in a logical sequence, e.g.: Low literacy rates among the women leading to lack of awareness which leads to lack of access to eye care facilities etc.
4-Draft the problem tree diagram. e.g.: Looks like a flow chart, in flow start we start from the first step and add further steps down to complete the sequence. Whereas in problem tree, start from placing all the core problems down and add more layers upwards showing the various sequence of issues causing final the effect on increased childhood blindness in the community.

B// Log Frame development:
1-For Childhood Blindness; list out the goal, purpose, component objectives, outputs, activities,
Means of verification, assumptions & indicators.
2-Finally, construct a Log Frame Analysis (LFA) matrix.

-some useful terminologies used in the matrix:
• Goal
– Refers to broad objectives to which the project is designed to contribute in a sustainable way.
– Eg. Improved nutritional status, reduced crime etc.
• Purpose
– The project is expected to achieve in terms of sustainable development outcome at the end or soon after the project life.
– Eg. Increased agricultural production, higher immunization coverage, Increased institution delivery etc.
– Only one purpose
• Component objectives
– Useful to give each component an objective statement
– Provide logical link between the outputs of that component and the project purpose
• Outputs
– Refers to the specific results and tangible products (goods and services)
– Eg. Irrigation system or water supplies constructed, children immunized, staff effectively trained, surgeries performed etc.
– Largely dependent on the project management’s control
• Activities
– Refer to the specific tasks undertaken to achieve the required outputs including duration, responsible person etc.
• Means of verification
– Should specify the expected source of information to be collected.
– How (methods), who, frequency and information details & formats etc.
• Assumptions
– Conditions that could affect the progress or success of the project. Eg. Price changes, rainfall etc.
• Indicators
– How the achievement of project objectives will be measured and verified.
– Basis for monitoring project progress.
– Evaluating the achievement of outcomes
Examples for Indicators
– How do we know that more teachers have been trained this year?
– What would tell us that the training had had an impact on classroom performance?
– How do we measure progress towards the objective of strengthening community management capacity?
– How do we know if these benefits are likely to be sustainable?

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