i need someone who is great with anatomy & physiology who can score an A on my lab quiz.
chapter 1 lab lecture notes:
Chapter 1 notes Lab
Anatomy-structure of body parts
Physiology-function of body parts
–Gross Anatomy-study of body structures visible to the naked eye
- Regional-study of structures in a particular region (head and neck region)
- Systematic-study of body systems (cardiovascular system…)
- Surface-study of internal structures as they relate to overlying skin (tonsils)
–Microscopic-study of body parts not visible to the naked eye
- Cytology-study of cells
- Histology-study of tissues
-Study Pg. 7 Fig 1.3 regional terms (ALL)
Organ systems…structural organizations of the body
- Cell-basic unit of any living organism/4 types seen in the body: epithelium cells, muscle cells, nerve cells, connective tissue cells
- Tissue-when similar cells get together, they form a tissue (muscle cell form muscle tissue)
- Organ-when different types of tissues come together, they form an organ. Most organs contain all 4 types of tissues (heart consists of a lining made up of epithelium and has muscle tissue and CT outside the heart)
- Organ system-When many organs which perform similar functions get together, they form an
-Cardiovascular-veins and arteries
-Integumentary- skin, hair, and nails. Vitamin A: vision. Mineral that helps skin, hair, and nails grow is biotin.
-Digestive (gastrointestinal)-stomach, intestines, liver, oral cavity, esophagus
-Urinary-bladder, kidneys, ureter, urethra
-Endocrine- pineal gland, thyroid gland, pancreas
-Nervous-brain, spinal cord
-Lymphatic/Immune-lymph nodes, spleen
Characteristics of a living organism
-Digestion and metabolism
-Reproduction- In order to reproduce, you need a nucleus, therefore red blood cells do no reproduce since NO nucleus.
-Oxygen-20% of the air we breathe
-Water-60-80% is water. Most abundant chemical substance in the body.
-Nutrients-Food, vitamins-Vitamin A (vision), mineral (biotin)
-Normal body temperature-98.6 degrees
-Maintain the constancy of the stable internal environment
-Nervous and Endocrine systems primarily involved
–Negative feedback-ongoing process/2 examples: starvation, home heating. Purpose is to prevent sudden and severe changes within the body
-Positive feedback-not an ongoing process/examples: blood clotting (Vitamin K), nursing a baby, labor contractions
Anatomical Position and Direction
Anatomical Position-standing erect, feet slightly apart (together), palms facing forward, arms at sides, thumbs pointing away from the body (lateral).
-Axial-head, neck, trunk
-Appendicular- arms and legs (limbs)
-Median Sagittal- Left/Right
Directional terms (study Fig 1.2 p. 6)
-Medial-towards the midline
-Lateral-away from the midline
-Superior-towards the head
-Inferior-towards the feet
-Proximal-nearer the trunk (limbs)
-Distal-further from the trunk (limbs)
-Superficial-toward the surface
-Deep-away from the surface
-Dorsal cavity-brain and spinal cord
–Thoracic cavity: lungs & heart (pericardial cavity)
-Abdominopelvic cavity: liver, spleen, stomach, intestines
-Abdominopelvic cavity- separated from thoracic cavity by diaphragm.
–Pelvic cavity: bladder, reproductive organs and rectum.
-4 structures not in a cavity: diaphragm, bone, skeletal muscles, skin.
KNOW figure 1.6 page 10
Right hypochondriac and epigastric = liver
Left hypochondriac and epigastric= stomach and spleen
Lumbar region= kidneys