Chapter 23 is devoted to the Animal Kingdom. It discusses the body plan and other key innovations in animals. Animals like other organisms encounter a number of problems. Each species of animal has found unique ways to solve these problems. By solving their problems, animals have evolved differently in different environments and increased their diversity. From most primitive (sponges) to most advanced (vertebrates). And a huge number of other species in between. That is why there are so much variations in animal species (more than 1.5 million species of animals have been identified).

With regard to the above and the content of Chapter 23, please write 2 characteristics for each of the following animal phyla (Look at the diagram below to see the relationships of these phyla). No response to a classmate is necessary in this forum:

  1. Porifera (Sponge):
  2. Cnidaria (Hydra):
  3. Platyhelminthes (Flatworm):
  4. Mollusca (snails):
  5. Annelda (Earthworm):
  6. Arthropoda (grasshopper or crayfish):
  7. Echinodermata (Sea star):
  8. Chordata (Frog):

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