Assignment: Short Answer Assessment

As a psychiatric nurse practitioner, before you can recommend potential pharmacotherapeutics to address a patient’s condition or disorder, you must understand the basic function and structure of the neuron and central nervous system. For this Assignment, you will review and To Prepare:

  • Review the Learning Resources for this week in preparation to complete this Assignment.
  • Reflect on the basic function and structure of the neuron in relation to the central nervous system.
  • Reflect on the inter-connectedness between neurons and the central nervous system, including the pathway and distribution of electrical impulses.
  • Reflect on how neurons communicate with each other and review the concept of neuroplasticity.

apply your understanding of neuroanatomy by addressing a set of short answer prompts.

To complete:

Address the following Short Answer prompts for your Assignment. Be sure to include references to the Learning Resources for this week.

  1. In 4 or 5 sentences, describe the anatomy of the basic unit of the nervous system, the neuron. Include each part of the neuron and a general overview of electrical impulse conduction, the pathway it travels, and the net result at the termination of the impulse. Be specific and provide examples.
  2. Answer the following (listing is acceptable for these questions):
  3. In 3 or 4 sentences, explain how glia cells function in the central nervous system. Be specific and provide examples.
  4. The synapse is an area between two neurons that allows for chemical communication. In 3 or 4 sentences, explain what part of the neurons are communicating with each other and in which direction does this communication occur? Be specific.
  5. In 3–5 sentences, explain the concept of “neuroplasticity.” Be specific and provide examples.

By Day 7

Submit your Assignment. 

 

Name: NURS_6630_Week1_Assignment_Rubric

 

 

Excellent Point range: 90–100

Good Point range: 80–89

Fair Point range: 70–79

Poor Point range: 0–69

In 4 or 5 sentences, describe the anatomy of the basic unit of the nervous sytem, the neuron. Include each part of the neuron and a general overview of electrical impulse conduction, the pathway it travels, and the net result at the termination of the impulse. Be specific and provide examples.

12 (16%) – 13 (17.33%)

The response accurately and clearly describes in detail the anatomy of the neuron. The response accurately and clearly describes in detail each part of the neuron, and it includes a detailed explanation of the general overview of electrical impulse conduction, the pathway it travels, and the net result at the termination of the impulse. Examples fully support the response provided.

11 (14.67%) – 11 (14.67%)

The response accurately describes the anatomy of the neuron. The response accurately describes each part of the neuron, and it includes a general overview of electrical impulse conduction, the pathway it travels, and the net result at the termination of the impulse. Examples support the response provided.

10 (13.33%) – 10 (13.33%)

The response provides an inaccurate or vague description of the anatomy of the neuron. The response inaccurately or vaguely describes each part of the neuron, and it includes an inaccurate or vague overview of electrical impulse conduction, the pathway it travels, and the net result at the termination of the impulse. Examples vaguely support the response provided.

0 (0%) – 9 (12%)

The response provides an inaccurate or incomplete description of the anatomy of the neuron, or is missing. The response inaccurately or incompletely describes each part of the neuron, and it includes an inaccurate or vague overview of electrical impulse conduction, the pathway it travels, and the net result at the termination of the impulse, or is missing. Examples do not support the response provided, or is missing.

Answer the following (listing is acceptable for these questions): a. What are the major components that make up the subcortical structures? b. Which component plays a role in learning, memory, and addiction? c. What are the two key neurotransmitters located in the nigra striatal region of the brain that play a major role in motor control?

12 (16%) – 13 (17.33%)

The response accurately and clearly details the major components that make up the subcortical structures. The response accurately and clearly details which component plays a role in learning, memory, and addiction. The response accurately and clearly identifies the two neurotransmitters located in the nigra striatal region of the brain that play a major role in motor control.

11 (14.67%) – 11 (14.67%)

The response accurately identifies the major components that make up the subcortical structures. The response accurately identifies which component plays a role in learning, memory, and addiction. The response accurately identifies the two neurotransmitters located in the nigra striatal region of the brain that play a major role in motor control.

10 (13.33%) – 10 (13.33%)

The response inaccurately identifies the major components that make up the subcortical structures. The response inaccurately identifies which component plays a role in learning, memory, and addiction. The response inaccurately identifies two neurotransmitters located in the nigra striatal region of the brain that play a major role in motor control.

0 (0%) – 9 (12%)

The response inaccurately and incompletely identifies the major components that make up the subcortical structures, or is missing. The response inaccurately and incompletely identifies which component plays a role in learning, memory, and addiction, or is missing. The response inaccurately and incompletely identifies two neurotransmitters in the nigra striatal region of the brain that play a major role in motor control, or is missing.

In 3 or 4 sentences, explain how glia cells function in the central nervous system. Be specific and provide examples.

12 (16%) – 13 (17.33%)

The response accurately and clearly explains in detail how glia cells function in the central nervous system. Examples fully support the response provided.

11 (14.67%) – 11 (14.67%)

The response accurately explains how glia cells function in the central nervous system. Examples support the response provided.

10 (13.33%) – 10 (13.33%)

The response inaccurately or vaguely explains how glia cells function in the central nervous system. Examples inaccurately or vaguely support the response provided.

0 (0%) – 9 (12%)

The response inaccurately and vaguely explains how glia cells function in the central nervous system, or is missing. Examples do not support the response provided, or is missing.

The synapse is an area between two neurons that allows for chemical communication. In 3 or 4 sentences, explain what part of the neurons are communicating with each other and in which direction does this communication occur? Be specific.

12 (16%) – 13 (17.33%)

The response accurately and clearly explains in detail the part of the neurons that communicate with each other and the direction in which this communication occurs.

11 (14.67%) – 11 (14.67%)

The response accurately explains the part of the neurons that communicate with each other and the direction in which this communication occurs.

10 (13.33%) – 10 (13.33%)

The response inaccurately or vaguely explains the part of the neurons that communicate with each other and the direction in which this communication occurs.

0 (0%) – 9 (12%)

The response inaccurately and vaguely explains the part of the neurons that communicate with each other and the direction in which this communication occurs, or is missing.

In 3–5 sentences, explain the concept of “neuroplasticity.” Be specific and provide examples.

12 (16%) – 13 (17.33%)

The response accurately and clearly explains in detail the concept of neuroplasticity. Examples provided fully support the response provided.

11 (14.67%) – 11 (14.67%)

The response accurately explains the concept of neuroplasticity. Examples provided support the response provided.

10 (13.33%) – 10 (13.33%)

The response inaccurately or vaguely explains the concept of neuroplasticity. Examples inaccurately or vaguely support the response provided.

0 (0%) – 9 (12%)

The response inaccurately and vaguely explains the concept of neuroplasticity, or is missing. Examples do not support the response provided, or is missing.

Written Expression and Formatting – English writing standards: Correct grammar, mechanics, and proper punctuation

5 (6.67%) – 5 (6.67%)

Uses correct grammar, spelling, and punctuation with no errors.

4 (5.33%) – 4 (5.33%)

Contains a few (1 or 2) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors.

3.5 (4.67%) – 3.5 (4.67%)

Contains several (3 or 4) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors.

0 (0%) – 2 (2.67%)

Contains many (≥ 5) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors that interfere with the reader’s understanding.

Written Expression and Formatting – The paper follows correct APA format for title page, headings, font, spacing, margins, indentations, page numbers, parenthetical/in-text citations, and reference list.

5 (6.67%) – 5 (6.67%)

Uses correct APA format with no errors.

4 (5.33%) – 4 (5.33%)

Contains a few (1 or 2) APA format errors.

3.5 (4.67%) – 3.5 (4.67%)

Contains several (3 or 4) APA format errors.

0 (0%) – 2 (2.67%)

Contains many (≥ 5) APA format errors.

Total Points: 75

 

 

 

 

 

FOLLOW THIS EXAMPLE PLEASE

Short Answer Assessment

Mary Evans

PMHNP, Walden University

NURS 6630: Psychopharmalogical Approaches to Treat Psychopathology

Dr. Robert L

01/18/2021

 

Introduction

The use of pharmacological treatment requires an understanding of the disease process as well as extensive knowledge of the effect drugs have on the body. The purpose of this paper is to answer the provided short answer questions. Using evidence-based literature, I will explain treatment for patients who present with major depressant disorder and a history of alcohol abuse; predictors of late-onset generalized anxiety disorder; neurobiological causes of psychotic major depression; symptoms required for a diagnosis of major depression; medications that precipitate insomnia.

1. In 3 or 4 sentences, explain the appropriate drug therapy for a patient who presents with MDD and a history of alcohol abuse. Which drugs are contraindicated, if any, and why? Be specific. What is the timeframe that the patient should see resolution of symptoms?

Therapy: Studies show a combination of sertraline (depression) and naltrexone (Alcohol dependence) achieved greater abstinence from alcohol, delayed relapse to heavy drinking, and relief of depression symptoms (Pettinati & Dundon, 2011).

Contraindications: Taking naltrexone with a comorbid condition of cirrhosis has been shown to produce five to ten-fold increases in naltrexone plasma concentrations (Sinclair et al., 2016). Taking opioids with naltrexone should be avoided due to the blockade of opioid receptors requiring large doses of opioids for efficacy (Stahl, 2017).

Timeframe: Sertraline- onset of therapeutic action is 2-4 weeks, although the patient may experience an increase in energy prior to the 2-4-week period (Stahl, 2017). Naltrexone- can begin working within a few days but maximum effects may not be seen for a few weeks (Stahl, 2017).

2. List 4 predictors of late onset generalized anxiety disorder.

1) History of mental issues including depression and/or anxiety (Zhang et al., 2015).

2) Female (Zhang et al., 2015).

3) Recent adverse life events (Zhang et al., 2015).

4) Having chronic physical (respiratory disorders, arrhythmia and heart failure, dyslipidemia, cognitive impairment) (Zhang et al., 2015).

3. List 4 potential neurobiology causes of psychotic major depression.

1) Reduced hypothalamic and subgenual cortex (Croarkin, 2018)

2) Decreased connectivity within the right planum temporale (Croarkin, 2018)

3) Decreased gamma-Aminobutyric acid neurotransmission (Croarkin, 2018)

4) Higher cortisol and prolactin levels (Labad, 2019).

4. An episode of major depression is defined as a period of time lasting at least 2 weeks. List at least 5 symptoms required for the episode to occur. Be specific.

1. Depressed mood most of the day, nearly every day (American Psychiatric Association, 2013).

2. Markedly diminished interest or pleasure in all, or almost all, activities most of the day, nearly every day (American Psychiatric Association, 2013).

3. Insomnia or hypersomnia nearly every day (American Psychiatric Association, 2013).

4. Feelings of worthlessness or excessive or inappropriate guilt nearly every day (American Psychiatric Association, 2013).

5. Diminished ability to think or concentrate, or indecisiveness, nearly every day (American Psychiatric Association, 2013).

5. List 3 classes of drugs, with a corresponding example for each class, that precipitate insomnia. Be specific.

According to Doufas et al. (2017) the following class of drugs had statistically significant effects on sleep disturbance when used to treat some, but not all conditions:

1) Class: Serotonin dopamine receptor antagonist (atypical antipsychotic) Example: olanzapine (Zyprexa), indicated for schizophrenia spectrum disorders, bipolar maintenance, acute agitation, treatment-resistant depression (Stahl, 2017).

2) Class: Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors Example: Donepezil (Aricept), indicated for Alzheimer disease, memory disorders in other conditions, mild cognitive impairment (Stahl, 2017).

3) Class: Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors. Example: Paroxetine (Paxil), indicated for major depressive disorder (MDD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), panic disorders, social anxiety disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), general anxiety disorder (GAD), and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) (Stahl, 2017).

References

American Psychiatric Association. (2018). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596

Croarkin, P. E. (2018). Indexing the neurobiology of psychotic depression with resting state connectivity: Insights from the STOP-PD study. EBioMedicine, 37, pp 32–33. https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1016/j.ebiom.2018.10.010

Doufas, A., Panagiotou, O., Panousis, P., Wong, S. S., & Ioannidis, J. P. (2017). Insomnia from drug treatments: Evidence from meta-analyses of randomized trials and concordance with prescribing information. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 92(1), 72-87. doi:http://dx.doi.org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1016/j.mayocp.2016.09.005

Labad, J. (2019). The role of cortisol and prolactin in the pathogenesis and clinical expression of psychotic disorders. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 102, 24–36. https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2018.11.028

Pettinati, H. M. & Dundon, (2011). Comorbid Depression and Alcohol Dependence. Psychiatric Times 28(6). Retrieved from https://www.psychiatrictimes.com/view/comorbid-depression-and-alcohol-dependence

Sinclair, J. M. A., Chambers, S. E., Shiles, C. J., & Baldwin, D. S. (2017). Safety and tolerability of pharmacological treatment of alcohol dependence: Comprehensive review of evidence: An international journal of medical toxicology and drug experience. Drug Safety, 39(7), 627-645. doi:http://dx.doi.org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1007/s40264-016-0416-y

Stahl, S. (2017). Stahl’s essential psychopharmacology: The prescriber’s guide (6th ed.). Cambridge, UK ; New York: Cambridge University Press

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